On another day he encounters her as a nude, alluring woman. But Mut was rarely portrayed alongside Amun in contexts related to sex or fertility, and in those circumstances, Hathor or Isis stood at his side instead. To use the materials on this site please eMail me and ask permission. [127], In the Old Kingdom, most priests of Hathor, including the highest ranks, were women. [136], In a local Theban festival known as the Beautiful Festival of the Valley, which began to be celebrated in the Middle Kingdom, the cult image of Amun from the Temple of Karnak visited the temples in the Theban Necropolis while members of the community went to the tombs of their deceased relatives to drink, eat, and celebrate. Always look forward to your posts and artwork. Egyptian texts often speak of the manifestations of the goddess as "Seven Hathors" or, less commonly, of many more Hathors—as many as 362. [140], The best-documented festival focused on Hathor is another Ptolemaic celebration, the Festival of the Beautiful Reunion. [59], Like Meskhenet, another goddess who presided over birth, Hathor was connected with shai, the Egyptian concept of fate, particularly when she took the form of the Seven Hathors. They perfumed the air with flowers and incense. E voi, in cosa vorreste che Hathor contribuisse a creare abbondanza? Thank you. Hathor è una divinità antichissima della mitologia egizia, multiforme e collegata all'archetipo delle Grandi Madri protostoriche, il cui nome significa "casa di Horus". [118] Traits of Isis, Hathor, and Aphrodite were all combined to justify the treatment of Ptolemaic queens as goddesses. [168], Some Egyptians also left written prayers to Hathor, inscribed on stelae or written as graffiti. [39], Hathor could be the consort of many male gods, of whom Ra was only the most prominent. It’s been more than a year since I made a temple reconstruction. [29] The two aspects of the Eye goddess—violent and dangerous versus beautiful and joyful—reflected the Egyptian belief that women, as the Egyptologist Carolyn Graves-Brown puts it, "encompassed both extreme passions of fury and love". HATOR Hathor è una divinità antichissima della mitologia egizia, multiforme e collegata all'archetipo delle Grandi Madri protostoriche, il cui nome significa "casa di Horus". [159] At Jebel Barkal, a site sacred to Amun, the Kushite king Taharqa built a pair of temples, one dedicated to Hathor and one to Mut as consorts of Amun, replacing New Kingdom Egyptian temples that may have been dedicated to these same goddesses. [143] On one day of the festival, these images were carried out to a shrine where primordial deities such as the sun god and the Ennead were said to be buried. The hand he used for this act, the Hand of Atum, represented the female aspect of himself and could be personified by Hathor, Nebethetepet, or another goddess, Iusaaset. [169], As an afterlife deity, Hathor appeared frequently in funerary texts and art. She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt… Quote Source: Wikipedia. [137] Hathor was not involved in this festival until the early New Kingdom,[138] after which Amun's overnight stay in the temples at Deir el-Bahari came to be seen as his sexual union with her. The water of the annual flooding of the Nile, colored red by sediment, was likened to wine, and to the red-dyed beer in the Destruction of Mankind. [32], These aspects of Hathor were linked with the myth of the Eye of Ra. The statue of Hathor would travel from Dendara to the temple of Horus at Edfu, a distance of 106 miles before the festival kicked off. Thomas Schneider interprets the text as implying that between his two encounters with the goddess the herdsman has done something to pacify her. Her beneficent side represented music, dance, joy, love, sexuality and maternal care, and she acted as the consort of several male deities and the mother of their sons. Horus, Egyptian Hor, Har, Her, or Heru, in ancient Egyptian religion, a god in the form of a falcon whose right eye was the sun or morning star, representing power and quintessence, and whose left eye was the moon or evening star, representing healing. [27] Related to this story is the myth of the Distant Goddess, from the Late and Ptolemaic periods. [100] Mirrors were another of her symbols, because in Egypt they were often made of gold or bronze and therefore symbolized the sun disk, and because they were connected with beauty and femininity. [116] In the Ptolemaic period (305–30 BC), when Greeks governed Egypt and their religion developed a complex relationship with that of Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty adopted and modified the Egyptian ideology of kingship. [92] Some burial goods that portray deceased women as goddesses may depict these women as followers of Hathor, although whether the imagery refers to Hathor or Isis is not known. She is usually depicted as a woman with the head of a cow, ears of a cow, or simply in cow form. [134], Many of Hathor's annual festivals were celebrated with drinking and dancing that served a ritual purpose. [113] She used names and titles that linked her to a variety of goddesses, including Hathor, so as to legitimize her rule in what was normally a male position. [79] One of these was Imentet, the goddess of the west, who personified the necropolises, or clusters of tombs, on the west bank of the Nile, and the realm of the afterlife itself. Most offerings to Hathor were used for their symbolism, not for their intrinsic value. On the first day of the new year, the first day of the month of Thoth, the Hathor image was carried up to the roof to be bathed in genuine sunlight. The uraeus was a common motif in Egyptian art and could represent a variety of goddesses who were identified with the Eye of Ra. [102], Hathor was sometimes represented as a human face with bovine ears, seen from the front rather than in the profile-based perspective that was typical of Egyptian art. Nome griegu: Hathor.Deidá griega: Afrodita.Deidá romana: Venus [78] Amenhotep III and Ramesses II both built temples in Nubia that celebrated their respective queens as manifestations of female deities, including Hathor: Amenhotep's wife Tiye at Sedeinga[157] and Ramesses's wife Nefertari at the Small Temple of Abu Simbel. Máis tarde se … [145] C. J. Bleeker thought the Beautiful Reunion was another celebration of the return of the Distant Goddess, citing allusions in the temple's festival texts to the myth of the solar eye. My husband and I went in February last year and we’re going back this November because we loved it so much. As time passed, Hathor’s relationships and manifestations became increasingly complex and confusing. Her act may have lifted Ra's spirits partly because it sexually aroused him, although why he laughed is not fully understood. [163] The meaning of these figurines is not known,[164] but they are often thought to represent Hathor or Isis combined with Aphrodite making a gesture that represented fertility or protection against evil. Satellite buildings, known as mammisis, were built in celebration of the birth of the local child deity. It took place over fourteen days in the month of Epiphi. [103] These columns have two or four faces, which may represent the duality between different aspects of the goddess or the watchfulness of Hathor of the Four Faces. Thus, texts from tombs often expressed a wish that the deceased would be able to participate in festivals, primarily those dedicated to Osiris. In her form as Hesat she is shown as a pure white cow carrying a tray of food on her head as her udders flow with milk. Mut was the usual consort of Amun, the preeminent deity during the New Kingdom who was often linked with Ra. He has a very cute smile. Nut most commonly filled this role, but the tree goddess was sometimes called Hathor instead. During the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, Mentuhotep II established a permanent cult center for her in the necropolis at Deir el-Bahari. Most Egyptologists who study this story think this woman is Hathor or a goddess like her, one who can be wild and dangerous or benign and erotic. [173], Hathor was said to supply offerings to deceased people as early as the Old Kingdom, and spells to enable both men and women to join her retinue in the afterlife appeared as early as the Coffin Texts in the Middle Kingdom. In the Osiris myth, the murdered god Osiris was resurrected when he copulated with Isis and conceived Horus. [75] The only goddesses who used the was were those, like Hathor, who were linked with the Eye of Ra. [10] The Egyptologist Robyn Gillam suggests that these diverse forms emerged when the royal goddess promoted by the Old Kingdom court subsumed many local goddesses worshipped by the general populace, who were then treated as manifestations of her. In Egypt, Hathor was the goddess of love, beauty, dancing, music, and fertility. [53] At Kom Ombo, Hathor's local form, Tasenetnofret, was mother to Horus's son Panebtawy. Offering quality new and used hi-fi stereo systems and accessories, including turntables, speakers, and amplifiers from Naim Audio, Rega, Luxman, Spendor, ATC, Harbeth, Pro-Ject, Marantz and more. [125] After the end of the Old Kingdom it surpassed her Memphite temples in importance. [13], Hathor was given the epithets "mistress of the sky" and "mistress of the stars", and was said to dwell in the sky with Ra and other sun deities. [151] A myth about Isis's presence in Byblos, related by the Greek author Plutarch in his work On Isis and Osiris in the 2nd century AD, suggests that by his time Isis had entirely supplanted Hathor in the city. [92], Hathor was often depicted as a cow bearing the sun disk between her horns, especially when shown nursing the king. [80], Just as she crossed the boundary between Egypt and foreign lands, Hathor passed through the boundary between the living and the Duat, the realm of the dead. His right eye was associated with the sun god, Ra.The eye symbol represents the marking around the eye of the falcon, including the "teardrop" marking sometimes found below the eye.The mirror image, or left eye, sometimes represented the moon and the god Djehuti (). [12] For these reasons, Gillam calls her "a type of deity rather than a single entity". An image of the sed festival of Amenhotep III, meant to celebrate and renew his rule, shows the king together with Hathor and his queen Tiye, which could mean that the king symbolically married the goddess in the course of the festival. The name Hathor means “estate of Horus ” and may not be her original name. [60], Hathor's maternal aspects can be compared with those of Isis and Mut, yet there are many contrasts between them. When dynastic rule began, as Horus was associated with the king, Hathor was with the queen. In contrast, prayers to Hathor mention only the benefits she could grant, such as abundant food during life and a well-provisioned burial after death. [21] At Ra's cult center of Heliopolis, Hathor-Nebethetepet was worshipped as his consort,[22] and the Egyptologist Rudolf Anthes argued that Hathor's name referred to a mythical "house of Horus" at Heliopolis that was connected with the ideology of kingship. And she came of her own free will to see me. Each day the flotilla would divert along some local canal to a town anchorage where a small chapel would stand. This cosmic mother goddess was often represented as a cow. [62] The text of the first century AD Insinger Papyrus likens a faithful wife, the mistress of a household, to Mut, while comparing Hathor to a strange woman who tempts a married man.